Description : Holographic lithography has been proven to be an attractive technique for the creation of large area, defect-free, three-dimensional photonic crystals. Structures with potential in photonic applications are fabricated in the photoresist SU-8, through concurrent exposure with four non-coplanar coherent beams of laser radiation. Polymer-air structures with face centered cubic symmetry are used as a template to create higher refractive index contrast photonic crystals by infilling using Atomic Layer Deposition and Chemical Vapor Deposition. These photonic crystals exhibit excellent optical properties with strong reflectance peaks at the calculated band gap frequencies. Two-photon polymerization is used to demonstrate the ability to create designed defect structures such as waveguides in silicon-air photonic crystals.